The environment can affect health through physical exposures, such as air pollution OECD, b. A large body of work has documented the effects of exposure to particulate matter solid particles and liquid droplets found in the air on cardiovascular and respiratory mortality and morbidity Brook et al. Research has identified specific physiologic mechanisms by which these exposures affect inflammatory, autonomic, and vascular processes Brook et al.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background Environmental factors play a very important role in the child development process, especially in a situation like that of Iraq.
Thirteen years of economic sanctions followed by the war and 8 years of unstable security have affected the daily life of Iraqi families and children. The objective of this study was to assess the associations between living environment domains and child intelligence quotient IQ score.
Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among children aged 7—8 years from five primary schools in Baghdad during September—October, The five schools represent people living a range of conditions, and include of both high and low socio-economic groups.
Living environment was assessed by 13 questionnaire items, consists of three domains: While IQ was assessed by Raven Colored progressive matrices. Conclusion In Iraq, child IQ was found to be associated with the mental stress and service domains of the living environment.
This study findings will help authorities in their efforts to improve living environment.
Baghdad City, IQ, Living environment, Primary school children Background The consequences of war are not limited to impaired physical health. War may also impair the mental health of affected individuals.
The negative consequences for mental health can be significant, especially when the victims are children. Living in an unstable environment during childhood has detrimental effects on children, especially on their cognitive development. A few studies have examined the effects of war and terrorism on child cognitive development.
Joshi and Donnell [ 1 ] concluded that any war or act of terror, as a sudden, unpredictable, and dramatic event, has a tremendous negative impact at various levels, including the community, family, and individual. Children are usually the most affected by these experiences.
Delaney-Black [ 2 ] examined the relationship between violence exposure, trauma-related distress and standardized test performance among urban first-grade children and their caregivers. A child experiencing exposure to violence and trauma-related distress at or above the 90th percentile would be expected to have a 7.
Delaney-Black concluded that for young children, exposure to violence and trauma-related distress was associated with substantial decrements in IQ and reading achievement. During the past three decades, the health of Iraqi people has substantially deteriorated.
The most recent war triggered a new wave of disruption in the country [ 3 - 5 ]. The conflict has resulted in an increased incidence of violence and killing, a decline in health services, an unstable electricity supply, a deterioration of drinking water and sewerage systems, a lack of adequate food and major disruption in daily household life [ 67 ].
The cumulative effects of this history have left Iraqi children in dire circumstances [ 8 ]. This aim of this study was to assess the effect of living in an insecure environment on child intelligence quotients IQ.
We focused on the effects of living in an unstable security situation on the mental health and physical safety of household members and the services provided to the house.
Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among children aged 7—8 years from five different primary schools in Baghdad City during September—October, Questionnaires were used to assess the living environment and IQ was assessed using standardized measures.
A list of all schools in the city of Baghdad was obtained from the Ministry of Education. Baghdad is divided into five educational areas, and one school was selected from each of them.
Simple random sampling was used to select the five schools. The five educational areas represent people living a range of conditions, and include of both high and low socio-economic groups. From each selected school, a complete list of student names was obtained.
Stratified random sampling according to grade was then used to identify children from each school.Among the five major factors of poverty, the dependency syndrome is the one closest to the concerns of the community mobilizer.
Conclusion: These five factors are not independent of one another.
Poverty is defined as "the state of being poor; lack of the means of providing material needs or comforts.(" More children live in poverty in the United States than in . Apr 07, · One, we demonstrate that the duration of childhood poverty is related prospectively to working memory performance later in life among young adults.
Poverty in the United States: Year Trends and Safety Net Impacts Poverty Estimates, Trends, and Analysis Information on the Supplemental Poverty Measure - A Summary of Current Population Survey Data Information on the Supplemental Poverty Measure - A Summary of Current Population Survey Data (October ) Disability, Health .
In , 87 percent of eligible male black voters participated in the local election, which directly led to a number of African Americans being elected to office, and one of the first mixed-race municipal governments in the United States.
The intelligence community’s February briefing on worldwide threats branded bin Laden’s terrorist network as “the most immediate and serious threat” to the United States, capable of.