The chapter most likely to provoke fear, uncertainty and doubt. The discussion section is scary because you have to make new knowledge claims of your own, not just agree or disagree with other people. Knowledge claims are like dumplings in the thesis soup or chocolate chips in the PhD cookie. They will evaluate the quality, amount and — most importantly — the believability of your knowledge claims.
Although the organising principles described here are most clearly relevant for empirical theses, much of the advice is also relevant for theoretical work. Please note that the formal requirements vary between different disciplines, and make sure to confer the guidelines that apply in your field.
For the contents in the various sections you may also confer Organising your writing. Summary and foreword Most readers will turn first to the summary or abstract. The summary should highlight the main points from your work, especially the thesis statement, methods if applicablefindings and conclusion.
However, the summary does not need to cover every aspect of your work. The main objective is to give the reader a good idea of what the thesis is about.
The summary should be completed towards the end; when you are able to overview your project as a whole. It is nevertheless a good idea to work on a draft continuously. Writing a good summary can be difficult, since it should only include the most important points of your work.
But this is also why working on your summary can be so useful — it forces you to identify the key elements of your writing project.
There are usually no formal requirements for forewords, but it is common practice to thank your supervisors, informants, and others who have helped and supported you.
If you have received any grants or research residencies, you should also acknowledge these. Shorter assignments do not require abstracts and forewords.
Introduction Your introduction has two main purposes: It is recommended to rewrite the introduction one last time when the writing is done, to ensure that it connects well with your conclusion.
For a nice, stylistic twist you can reuse a theme from the introduction in your conclusion. For example, you might present a particular scenario in one way in your introduction, and then return to it in your conclusion from a different — richer or contrasting — perspective.
The introduction should include: The background for your choice of theme A discussion of your research question or thesis statement A schematic outline of the remainder of your thesis The sections below discuss each of these elements in turn.
It should make a good impression and convince the reader why the theme is important and your approach relevant. Even so, it should be no longer than necessary. What is considered a relevant background depends on your field and its traditions.
Background information might be historical in nature, or it might refer to previous research or practical considerations. You can also focus on a specific text, thinker or problem. Academic writing often means having a discussion with yourself or some imagined opponent.
To open your discussion, there are several options available. You may, for example: In the remainder of your thesis, this kind of information should be avoided, particularly if it has not been collected systematically. Do not spend too much time on your background and opening remarks before you have gotten started with the main text.
Exercise Write three different opening paragraphs for your thesis using different literary devices For example: Observe to what extent these different openings inspire you, and choose the approach most appropriate to your topic.
For example, do you want to spur emotions, or remain as neutral as possible? How important is the historical background?
The exercise can be done in small groups or pairs. Discuss what makes an opening paragraph successful or not.The discussion section is a very important part of your dissertation or research paper.
It is also one of the most difficult parts to write, and sometimes the longest. Yet, many students write it in a rushed manner. Consider writing the introductory section(s) after you have completed the rest of the paper, rather than before.
Be sure to include a hook at the beginning of the introduction. This is a statement of something sufficiently interesting to motivate your reader to read the rest of the paper, it is an important/interesting scientific problem that. Discussion is one of the hardest section in research paper or thesis.
It needs experience, learning and practice. It is not a way to restate your results. Writing the Discussion. The discussion section is a framing section, like the Introduction, which returns to the significance argument set up in your introduction.
The discussion chapter is the problem child of the thesis. The chapter most likely to provoke fear, uncertainty and doubt. Not everyone writes a chapter called “discussion”, but everyone has to do discussiony bits because, well – that’s where the creative magic of the PhD happens.
In many thesis the discussion is the most important section. Make sure that you allocate enough time and space for a good discussion. This is your opportunity to show that you have understood the significance of your findings and that you are capable of applying theory in an independent manner.